Region: Manyara , Arusha
Type: D - Known animal movement routes between two protected areas.
Threat: Critical - probably less than 3 years remaining.


The Tarangire ecosystem is approximately 20,000 km2, the majority of which was historically used by wildlife and Maasai pastoralists.

Tarangire NP (2600 km2) lies in the northwest corner of the ecosystem. The Park is a dry season refuge for migratory herbivores that in the past moved west, north, northeast, east and south from the Park at the beginning of the rains in November.  Many of the former migration routes have already been lost.

The most important remaining corridor is east through the Lolkisale GCA out to the villages of Emboreet, Sukuro and Terrat.

The Makuyuni, Mkungunero/Kimotorok and Tarangire–Simanjiro Corridors
The Makuyuni, Mkungunero/Kimotorok and Tarangire–Simanjiro Corridors

The Makuyuni, Mkungunero/Kimotorok and Tarangire–Simanjiro Corridors


Migratory species are zebra, wildebeest, hartebeest and oryx and they move between 10 and 110 km out of the Park.

Most migratory routes have been blocked due to agricultural expansion; bushmeat hunting and resident hunting have reduced wildebeest, hartebeest and oryx populations by 88%, 90% and 95%, respectively.


As of the early 1990s approximately 10.5% of lands in the Tarangire ecosystem were under agricultural cultivation much of it abutting the Park, and this has accelerated dramatically in the last 15 years. Sport and illegal hunting is common in the area.

Considerable controversy has arisen between some stakeholders over the corridor between Tarangire NP and villages to the east, and politically this is a very sensitive area. Increasingly the villages adjoining the National Park are entering into land lease agreements with tour operators and creating concession areas which are used solely for tourism and cattle grazing.


Rodgers, A., Melamari, L., Nelson, F. (2003). Wildlife Conservation in Northern Tanzanian rangelands. Conservation in Crisis Symposium Mweka Dec 2003.

Sachedina, H. (2006) Conservation, Land Rights and Livelihoods in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania Wildlife and Pastoralists Symposium Nairobi June 2006

Bolger, T., Newmark, W., Morrison, T. Doak, D. (2008). The need for integrative approaches to understand and conserve migratory ungulates. Ecology Letters 11, 63-77.

Mwalyosi R. (1991). Population growth, carrying capacity and sustainable development in south-west Masailand. J. Environ. Mgmt 33, 175-187.